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 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology 
Kirjoittaja Viesti
Lipevä lappilainen
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Liittynyt: 23 Maalis 2018 14:07
Viestit: 361
Viesti 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
https://www.isba8.de/fileadmin/congress ... ogramm.pdf

Lainaa:
Maternal lineages from Iron Age to present in Eastern Fennoscandia
S. Översti 1 , K. Majander 1,2,3 , E. Salmela 1,2 , K. Salo 4 , H. Etu-Sihvola 5 , L. Arppe 5 , S. Belskiy 6 , V. Laakso 7 , E. Mikkola 8 , M. Oinonen 5 K. Vuoristo 8 , A. Wessman 4 , W. Haak 2 , J. Krause 2 , J. Palo 9,10 , P. Onkamo 1,11
Introduction: aDNA has revealed that the Neolithization involve d a turnover of maternal lineages in Europe: haplogroup (hg) U, dominating in hunter-gatherers , was widely replaced by the farmer-associated hgs such as H. As a result, modern European populations show different proportions of these hgs. In Finland , mtDNA diversity resembles that observed in other populations, but holds relatively high frequency of U and shows internal substructure: U is more common in the north-east (NE) Finland and farmer-associated hgs in the south-west (SW). This pattern has been interpreted to reflect the arrival of agriculture from the south-west, most likely associated to the spread of the Corded Ware Culture c. 4,500 ya. Objectives: To provide insight into the past of Eastern Fennoscandia, complete mtDNA genomes from Iron Age to Medieval Era were obtained from Finland. These derived from five burial grounds, of which Levänluhta (300-800 AD, N=13), Luistari (600- 1130 AD, N=10) and Kirkkailanmäki (1100-1200 AD, N=16) are located in SW Finland, and Kylälahti (1200-1400 AD, N=14) and Tuukkala (1200-1400 AD, N=19) sites in south-eastern (SE) Finland.
Methods: Extraction of aDNA was performed as in Meyer et al. 2010 and mtDNA capture as in Dabney et al. 2013. Raw sequence data processing was performed with EAGER and Schmutzi. Statistical analyses were calculated in Arlequin 3.5.2.2.
Results: The 72 haplotypes obtained belong to hgs observed in modern Finns, but the frequencies differ both from the modern population and between studied sites: the SW sites showed higher frequency of U (60%) than the SE sites (19%) or the modern data (23 %). H showed an opposite trend: 52% in SE and 27% in SW. On sequence level, SW sites have higher affinity to the modern NE, while SE sites cluster with modern SW. Furthermore, within the SW sites the distribution of U subhaplogroups is uneven: Levänluhta has high frequency of U5a and Saami-related hg U5b1b1a whereas other SW sites show relatively high frequencies of U4. Conclusion: Our results suggest an interpretation that among the studied sites and modern Finns, there are varying levels of admixture of three ancestries: Saami (U5b1b1), possible non-Saami hunter-gatherers (U4, U5a) and farmers (H, J, T, K). The high prevalence of H in the eastern sites might reflect bidirectional arrival of the farming-associated populations into Finland, challenging the traditional assumption of the spread of agriculture from the south-west.


Luistari on tosin hiukan varhaisemmalta ajalta kuin nämä kaakon saitit


05 Syys 2018 14:41
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Liittynyt: 14 Helmi 2011 04:02
Viestit: 7662
Viesti Re: Tuloksia eri projekteista
Vastandus kirjoitti:
https://www.isba8.de/fileadmin/congress/media/isba2018/druckelemente/ISBA2018%20Programm.pdf

Lainaa:
Maternal lineages from Iron Age to present in Eastern Fennoscandia
S. Översti 1 , K. Majander 1,2,3 , E. Salmela 1,2 , K. Salo 4 , H. Etu-Sihvola 5 , L. Arppe 5 , S. Belskiy 6 , V. Laakso 7 , E. Mikkola 8 , M. Oinonen 5 K. Vuoristo 8 , A. Wessman 4 , W. Haak 2 , J. Krause 2 , J. Palo 9,10 , P. Onkamo 1,11
Introduction: aDNA has revealed that the Neolithization involve d a turnover of maternal lineages in Europe: haplogroup (hg) U, dominating in hunter-gatherers , was widely replaced by the farmer-associated hgs such as H. As a result, modern European populations show different proportions of these hgs. In Finland , mtDNA diversity resembles that observed in other populations, but holds relatively high frequency of U and shows internal substructure: U is more common in the north-east (NE) Finland and farmer-associated hgs in the south-west (SW). This pattern has been interpreted to reflect the arrival of agriculture from the south-west, most likely associated to the spread of the Corded Ware Culture c. 4,500 ya. Objectives: To provide insight into the past of Eastern Fennoscandia, complete mtDNA genomes from Iron Age to Medieval Era were obtained from Finland. These derived from five burial grounds, of which Levänluhta (300-800 AD, N=13), Luistari (600- 1130 AD, N=10) and Kirkkailanmäki (1100-1200 AD, N=16) are located in SW Finland, and Kylälahti (1200-1400 AD, N=14) and Tuukkala (1200-1400 AD, N=19) sites in south-eastern (SE) Finland.
Methods: Extraction of aDNA was performed as in Meyer et al. 2010 and mtDNA capture as in Dabney et al. 2013. Raw sequence data processing was performed with EAGER and Schmutzi. Statistical analyses were calculated in Arlequin 3.5.2.2.
Results: The 72 haplotypes obtained belong to hgs observed in modern Finns, but the frequencies differ both from the modern population and between studied sites: the SW sites showed higher frequency of U (60%) than the SE sites (19%) or the modern data (23 %). H showed an opposite trend: 52% in SE and 27% in SW. On sequence level, SW sites have higher affinity to the modern NE, while SE sites cluster with modern SW. Furthermore, within the SW sites the distribution of U subhaplogroups is uneven: Levänluhta has high frequency of U5a and Saami-related hg U5b1b1a whereas other SW sites show relatively high frequencies of U4. Conclusion: Our results suggest an interpretation that among the studied sites and modern Finns, there are varying levels of admixture of three ancestries: Saami (U5b1b1), possible non-Saami hunter-gatherers (U4, U5a) and farmers (H, J, T, K). The high prevalence of H in the eastern sites might reflect bidirectional arrival of the farming-associated populations into Finland, challenging the traditional assumption of the spread of agriculture from the south-west.


Luistari on tosin hiukan varhaisemmalta ajalta kuin nämä kaakon saitit

Mielenkiintoista, ja hyvin on muinaisnäytteitä! Varmaan samoista yritetään saada myös Y- ja genominlaajuisia analyysejä tulevissa tutkimuksissa.

Kuulostaa erikoiselta, että muinaiset lounaissuomalaiset muistuttavat nykyisiä koillisia ja muinaiset kaakkoissuomalaiset nykyisiä lounaisia. Muistetaan kuitenkin, että toisvanhempaisten linjojen frekvenssit ehtivät muuttua kovastikin jo tuhannessa vuodessa pienessä väestössä. Olennaisempaa kuin frekvenssit olisi todellinen polveutuminen, mutta mtDNA:sta sitä harvoin saa selvitettyä. Y-kromosomitulokset ovat siinä mielessä kertovampia.

Levänluhdan U5b1b1a yhdistetään tässä saamelaisiin, mutta Malyarchukin 2010 tutkimuksessa sitä (sen alalinjoja) löydettiin saamelaisista, suomalaisista, venäläisistä, valkovenäläisistä ja jakuuteista.

_________________
~ "Per aspera ad hominem - vaikeuksien kautta henkilökohtaisuuksiin" ~

Y-DNA: N1c1-YP1143 (Olavi Häkkinen 1620 Kuhmo? >> Juhani Häkkinen 1816 Eno)
mtDNA: H5a1e (Elina Mäkilä 1757 Kittilä >> Riitta Sassali 1843 Sodankylä)


05 Syys 2018 18:12
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Liittynyt: 14 Helmi 2011 04:02
Viestit: 7662
Viesti Re: Tuloksia eri projekteista
Samasta linkistä tämäkin:

Lainaa:
A 1400-year transect of ancient DNA reveals recent genetic changes in the Finnish population
E. Salmela1,2, K. Majander1,2,3, T. C. Lamnidis2, K. Salo4, S. Översti1, L. Arppe5, S. Belskiy6, H. Etu-Sihvola5, V. Laakso7, E. Mikkola8, M. Oinonen5, J. P. Taavitsainen7, K. Vuoristo8, A. Wessman4, S. Schiffels2, J. Krause2,3, P., Onkamo1,9

Introduction: In the last few years, studies of ancient DNA (aDNA) have proven powerful in illuminating the geographic origin and migrations of past populations. Those studies have, however, so far focused disproportionately on Central and Western Europe, often due to the lack of access to suitable samples from elsewhere. Northeastern Europe, including Finland, remains one of the understudied regions, possibly because the acidic soils of the coniferous forest zone radically reduce the preservation of organic remains and aDNA. In contrast, the modern population of Finland has been extensively studied, largely for medical genetic interest. The contemporary Finnish gene pool is known to differ markedly from most other European populations and to harbor substantial substructure between the eastern and western parts of the country. Little is known, however, of the temporal origin of these remarkable features.

Objectives: Our objective was to use aDNA to study the population history of Finland. For this aim, we sampled and sequenced 35 individuals from ten archaeological sites across southern Finland, representing a time transect from 5th to 18th century.

Methods: Following genomic DNA extraction and preparation of indexed libraries, the samples were enriched for 1,2 million genomewide SNPs using in-solution capture and sequenced on an Illumina HighSeq 4000 instrument. The sequence data were then compared to other ancient populations as well as modern Finns, their geographical neighbors and worldwide populations. Authenticity testing of the data as well as population history inference were based on standard computational methods for aDNA, such as principal component analysis and F statistics.

Results: Despite the relatively limited temporal depth of our sample set, we are able to see major genetic changes in the area, from the earliest sampled individuals - who closely resemble the present-day Saami population residing markedly further north - to the more recent ancient individuals who show increased affinity to the neighboring Circum-Baltic populations. Furthermore, the transition to the present-day population seems to involve yet another perturbation of the gene pool.

Conclusion: Our aDNA data suggest that the population of Finland has been subject to relatively recent genetic changes, which may partly relate to the late arrival of agriculture in the area, and do correlate with known archaeological influence from neighboring regions.


muinais-DNA osoittaa, että Suomen asukkaiden geeniperimä on muuttunut hiljattain.

_________________
~ "Per aspera ad hominem - vaikeuksien kautta henkilökohtaisuuksiin" ~

Y-DNA: N1c1-YP1143 (Olavi Häkkinen 1620 Kuhmo? >> Juhani Häkkinen 1816 Eno)
mtDNA: H5a1e (Elina Mäkilä 1757 Kittilä >> Riitta Sassali 1843 Sodankylä)


05 Syys 2018 18:24
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Ylihärmiö
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Liittynyt: 14 Helmi 2011 04:02
Viestit: 7662
Viesti Re: Tuloksia eri projekteista
Lainaa:
Sampling to preserve – isotopic studies of Finnish inland "Vikings"
H. Etu-Sihvola1, E. Sahlstedt1,2, K. Salo3, L. Arppe1

Introduction
This contribution presents the first stable isotope study focusing on the Viking Age in Finland. We have studied a cemetery called Luistari in Eura. The past excavations have yielded over 100 Merovingian and almost 400 Viking Period graves, making Luistari a key site for the Finnish research. The fragmentary, but partly well-preserved skeletal tissues are rare, invaluable finds for bioarchaeological research. As such, they are subject to high research interest and sampling pressure, foreseen to increase in the future as new methodologies are developed.

Objectives
Our aim was to depict the origin, climatic backdrop and nutritional habits of the Luistari people by utilizing multiple stable isotope analyses. Further, we wanted to heed the conflicting interests of exhaustive isotope analytics, and the need to preserve precious archaeological remains for posterity. To reach our objectives, we 1) analyzed the isotope composition of Luistari skeletal remains using conventional "bulk" methods, and 2) developed a new method to sequentially extract both the organic and mineral phases of a bone sample for stable isotope analysis.

Methods
Depending on the preserved elements, we used isotopic analyses of δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, and δ34S to study 75 humans buried in Luistari. Altogether ten Viking Period individuals, six women and four men, were further selected for dentine serial sampling. From 2 to 8 microsamples were taken from the permanent molars. A novel sequential sampling method was used to extract both organic (collagen) and mineral (bioapatite) phases for stable isotope analysis. The method allows the determination of Ccoll-, Ncoll- and OPO4-isotope composition from a 2 mg subsample.

Results
Our results reveal the use of high trophic-level protein sources during the childhood, likely the exploitation of fish. Intra-individual variation of up to 1.8‰ in δ13C and up to 3.0 ‰ in δ15N, indicates probably both the weaning effect and dietary shift. Among the sampled humans there are individuals whose δ13C values are high, up to -18.2 ‰, in comparison with the analyzed bulk data, with typical δ13C values <-19.5 ‰. Likely this is due to consumption of marine fauna, but eating anadromous fish is also a noteworthy explanation.

Conclusion
Despite the small sample population, our results show that individual diet development was not homogenous. The considerable isotopic variation implicates possible seasonality in diet and perhaps movement between inland and coast.

_________________
~ "Per aspera ad hominem - vaikeuksien kautta henkilökohtaisuuksiin" ~

Y-DNA: N1c1-YP1143 (Olavi Häkkinen 1620 Kuhmo? >> Juhani Häkkinen 1816 Eno)
mtDNA: H5a1e (Elina Mäkilä 1757 Kittilä >> Riitta Sassali 1843 Sodankylä)


05 Syys 2018 18:31
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Ylihärmiö
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Liittynyt: 14 Helmi 2011 04:02
Viestit: 7662
Viesti Re: Tuloksia eri projekteista
Lainaa:
Using ancient DNA to identify the ancestry of individuals from a Medieval trading centre in Northern Finland
L. Simoes1, M. Niskanen2, T. Kallio-Seppä2, R. Vilkama2, J. Aspi3, J. A. Junno2, T. Väre2, S. Niinimäki2, S. Lipkin2, T. Tanska2, A. Tranberg2, A. Götherström4, J. Storå4, M. Heino3, M. Jakobsson1

Analyzing genomic information from archaeological human remains has proved to be a powerful approach to understand human history. For the archaeological site of Ii Hamina, ancient DNA can be used to infer the ancestries of individuals buried there. Situated approximately 30 km from Oulu, in Northern Finland, Ii Hamina was an important trade place since Medieval times. The historical context indicates that the site could have been a melting pot for different cultures and people of diversified genetic backgrounds. Archaeological and osteological evidence from different individuals suggest a rich diversity.

For example, stable isotope analyses indicate that freshwater and marine fish was the dominant protein source for this population. However, one individual proved to be an outlier, with a diet containing relatively more terrestrial meat or vegetables. The variety of artefacts that was found associated with several human remains also points to potential differences in religious beliefs or social status. In this study, we aimed to investigate if such variation could be attributed to different genetic ancestries.

Ten of the individuals buried in Ii Hamina's churchyard, dating to between the 15th and 17th century AD, were screened for presence of authentic ancient DNA. We retrieved genome-wide data for six of the individuals and performed downstream analysis. Data authenticity was confirmed by DNA damage patterns and low estimates of mitochondrial contamination. The relatively recent age of these human remains allows for a direct comparison to modern populations. A combination of population genetics methods was undertaken to characterize their genetic structure, and identify potential familiar relationships.

We found a high diversity of mitochondrial lineages at the site. In spite of the putatively distant origin of some of the artifacts, most individuals shared a higher affinity to the present-day Finnish or Late Settlement Finnish populations. Interestingly, different methods consistently sugested that the individual with outlier isotopic values had a different genetic origin, being more closely related to reindeer herding Saami. Here we show how data from different sources, such as stable isotopes, can be intersected with ancient DNA in order to get a more comprehensive understanding of the human past.

_________________
~ "Per aspera ad hominem - vaikeuksien kautta henkilökohtaisuuksiin" ~

Y-DNA: N1c1-YP1143 (Olavi Häkkinen 1620 Kuhmo? >> Juhani Häkkinen 1816 Eno)
mtDNA: H5a1e (Elina Mäkilä 1757 Kittilä >> Riitta Sassali 1843 Sodankylä)


05 Syys 2018 18:54
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Sutki savolainen
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Liittynyt: 17 Tammi 2014 18:19
Viestit: 535
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Demographic processes in the territory of Estonia from the earliest inhabitants to modern times
K. Tambets1, L. Saag1,2, A. Kushniarevich1, L. Varul3, A. Kriiska4, M. Laneman4, V. Lang4, M. Malve4, H. Valk4, L. Saag1, S. Rootsi1
A. Solnik1, T. Reisberg1, J. Parik1, C. L. Scheib1, T. Kivisild1,2,5, R. Villems1,2, M. Metspalu1
1University of Tartu, Institute of Genomics, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia
2University of Tartu, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Evolutionary Biology, Tartu, Estonia
3Tallinn University, School of Humanities, Tallinn, Estonia
4University of Tartu, Institute of History and Archaeology, Tartu, Estonia
5University of Cambridge, Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Lainaa:
This interdisciplinary project deals with the studies of temporal population dynamics of the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, in the territory of present-day Estonia. We use the skeletal material from Estonian archaeological collections to characterize the genetic structure of the population in time series starting from the earliest layers of lithic cultures to the contemporary population. The sample consisted of 72 individuals – 24 from the Bronze Age stone-cist graves, 13 from the Iron Age tarand-graves and 35 from the Medieval rural and town cemeteries. We produced low-coverage Illumina whole-genome sequencing data. The resulting data was analyzed in a context of modern Estonian and European genetic variation.
Hgs N3 and R1a are the two most common chrY hgs among modern Estonians. While we have previously found that hg R1a appears in Estonia together with farmers of Neolithic Corded Ware culture (CWC) people, the arrival of hg N, which has been proposed to be connected with the arrival of Uralic languages to Europe, is yet to be studied. We found that the Iron Age individuals do in fact carry chrY hg N3 while all 18 Bronze Age males belong to R1a. Furthermore, based on their autosomal data, all of the studied individuals appear closer to hunter-gatherers and modern Estonians than Estonian CWC individuals do.
The Medieval period started in the eastern Baltic region much later than in Central Europe and in Scandinavia. The crusades and conquest in 13th century AD brought along vast social, economical and cultural changes, which presumably changed the structure of the local population. While the Medieval individuals buried in rural cemeteries are considered as the representatives of the local Estonian population, those of big towns can often be associated with the new wave of people who arrived, mostly from Western Europe, together with Christianity via the economical, cultural and political networks. We find that there is a clear difference between the genome-wide data of individuals belonging to Medieval urban and rural communities. The urban elite clusters genetically with modern Germans but the rural local class with modern Estonians. We did find a few individuals of mixed genetic ancestry, but the overall admixture between the two classes was limited.
Our results reveal several population shifts during the prehistory of the region and show a clear continuity of the population starting at least from the Iron Age.


05 Syys 2018 20:17
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SuuBaltti
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Liittynyt: 14 Helmi 2011 19:18
Viestit: 5371
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Fagus kirjoitti:
Demographic processes in the territory of Estonia from the earliest inhabitants to modern times
K. Tambets1, L. Saag1,2, A. Kushniarevich1, L. Varul3, A. Kriiska4, M. Laneman4, V. Lang4, M. Malve4, H. Valk4, L. Saag1, S. Rootsi1
A. Solnik1, T. Reisberg1, J. Parik1, C. L. Scheib1, T. Kivisild1,2,5, R. Villems1,2, M. Metspalu1
1University of Tartu, Institute of Genomics, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia
2University of Tartu, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Evolutionary Biology, Tartu, Estonia
3Tallinn University, School of Humanities, Tallinn, Estonia
4University of Tartu, Institute of History and Archaeology, Tartu, Estonia
5University of Cambridge, Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Lainaa:
This interdisciplinary project deals with the studies of temporal population dynamics of the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, in the territory of present-day Estonia. We use the skeletal material from Estonian archaeological collections to characterize the genetic structure of the population in time series starting from the earliest layers of lithic cultures to the contemporary population. The sample consisted of 72 individuals – 24 from the Bronze Age stone-cist graves, 13 from the Iron Age tarand-graves and 35 from the Medieval rural and town cemeteries. We produced low-coverage Illumina whole-genome sequencing data. The resulting data was analyzed in a context of modern Estonian and European genetic variation.
Hgs N3 and R1a are the two most common chrY hgs among modern Estonians. While we have previously found that hg R1a appears in Estonia together with farmers of Neolithic Corded Ware culture (CWC) people, the arrival of hg N, which has been proposed to be connected with the arrival of Uralic languages to Europe, is yet to be studied. We found that the Iron Age individuals do in fact carry chrY hg N3 while all 18 Bronze Age males belong to R1a. Furthermore, based on their autosomal data, all of the studied individuals appear closer to hunter-gatherers and modern Estonians than Estonian CWC individuals do.
The Medieval period started in the eastern Baltic region much later than in Central Europe and in Scandinavia. The crusades and conquest in 13th century AD brought along vast social, economical and cultural changes, which presumably changed the structure of the local population. While the Medieval individuals buried in rural cemeteries are considered as the representatives of the local Estonian population, those of big towns can often be associated with the new wave of people who arrived, mostly from Western Europe, together with Christianity via the economical, cultural and political networks. We find that there is a clear difference between the genome-wide data of individuals belonging to Medieval urban and rural communities. The urban elite clusters genetically with modern Germans but the rural local class with modern Estonians. We did find a few individuals of mixed genetic ancestry, but the overall admixture between the two classes was limited.
Our results reveal several population shifts during the prehistory of the region and show a clear continuity of the population starting at least from the Iron Age.

"We found that the Iron Age individuals do in fact carry chrY hg N3 while all 18 Bronze Age males belong to R1a. Furthermore, based on their autosomal data, all of the studied individuals appear closer to hunter-gatherers and modern Estonians than Estonian CWC individuals do."

Eli siis tarhahaudoissa on vain N1c-, ei R1a-perimää?! Lisäksi, tarhoissa on siperiaa (koska nykyvirolaisissakin on)? HG-perimä on jotain WSHG/EHG-tyylistä, ei WHG-pohjaista, koska se eroaa prossikauden perimästä?

P.S. lausuntoa on jotenkin hankala yhdistää linkin PCA-kuvaan?

https://opetajateseminar.files.wordpres ... -1_dna.pdf


05 Syys 2018 20:33
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Lipevä lappilainen
Lipevä lappilainen

Liittynyt: 29 Elo 2015 19:08
Viestit: 397
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Mielenkiintoista! Hienoa, että vihdoinkin näin laajoja tutkimuksia on odotettavissa Suomen ja Viron alueelta ihan lähiaikoina.


05 Syys 2018 20:57
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SuuBaltti
SuuBaltti

Liittynyt: 12 Elo 2013 12:41
Viestit: 4015
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Lausunto on helppo yhdistää, sekä pronssivirolaiset että tarhavirolaiset ovat lähempänä nykyvirolaisia kuin vasarakirves. Tuossa puhutaan N-haplosta, ei siperiasta.


05 Syys 2018 21:04
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Liittynyt: 14 Helmi 2011 19:18
Viestit: 5371
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Rekonpoika kirjoitti:
Lausunto on helppo yhdistää, sekä pronssivirolaiset että tarhavirolaiset ovat lähempänä nykyvirolaisia kuin vasarakirves. Tuossa puhutaan N-haplosta, ei siperiasta.

O.K., tarhojen N1c siis tuo mukanaan WSHG/EHG-perimää.


05 Syys 2018 21:22
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SuuBaltti
SuuBaltti

Liittynyt: 12 Elo 2013 12:41
Viestit: 4015
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Ehkä, mutta myös ylimääräinen läntinen maajussiperimä on mahdollinen PCA:n perusteella.


05 Syys 2018 21:31
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Lipevä lappilainen
Lipevä lappilainen

Liittynyt: 07 Tammi 2015 01:30
Viestit: 330
Paikkakunta: Helsinki
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Fagus kirjoitti:
Demographic processes in the territory of Estonia from the earliest inhabitants to modern times
K. Tambets1, L. Saag1,2, A. Kushniarevich1, L. Varul3, A. Kriiska4, M. Laneman4, V. Lang4, M. Malve4, H. Valk4, L. Saag1, S. Rootsi1
A. Solnik1, T. Reisberg1, J. Parik1, C. L. Scheib1, T. Kivisild1,2,5, R. Villems1,2, M. Metspalu1
1University of Tartu, Institute of Genomics, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia
2University of Tartu, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Evolutionary Biology, Tartu, Estonia
3Tallinn University, School of Humanities, Tallinn, Estonia
4University of Tartu, Institute of History and Archaeology, Tartu, Estonia
5University of Cambridge, Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Lainaa:
This interdisciplinary project deals with the studies of temporal population dynamics of the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea, in the territory of present-day Estonia. We use the skeletal material from Estonian archaeological collections to characterize the genetic structure of the population in time series starting from the earliest layers of lithic cultures to the contemporary population. The sample consisted of 72 individuals – 24 from the Bronze Age stone-cist graves, 13 from the Iron Age tarand-graves and 35 from the Medieval rural and town cemeteries. We produced low-coverage Illumina whole-genome sequencing data. The resulting data was analyzed in a context of modern Estonian and European genetic variation.
Hgs N3 and R1a are the two most common chrY hgs among modern Estonians. While we have previously found that hg R1a appears in Estonia together with farmers of Neolithic Corded Ware culture (CWC) people, the arrival of hg N, which has been proposed to be connected with the arrival of Uralic languages to Europe, is yet to be studied. We found that the Iron Age individuals do in fact carry chrY hg N3 while all 18 Bronze Age males belong to R1a. Furthermore, based on their autosomal data, all of the studied individuals appear closer to hunter-gatherers and modern Estonians than Estonian CWC individuals do.
The Medieval period started in the eastern Baltic region much later than in Central Europe and in Scandinavia. The crusades and conquest in 13th century AD brought along vast social, economical and cultural changes, which presumably changed the structure of the local population. While the Medieval individuals buried in rural cemeteries are considered as the representatives of the local Estonian population, those of big towns can often be associated with the new wave of people who arrived, mostly from Western Europe, together with Christianity via the economical, cultural and political networks. We find that there is a clear difference between the genome-wide data of individuals belonging to Medieval urban and rural communities. The urban elite clusters genetically with modern Germans but the rural local class with modern Estonians. We did find a few individuals of mixed genetic ancestry, but the overall admixture between the two classes was limited.
Our results reveal several population shifts during the prehistory of the region and show a clear continuity of the population starting at least from the Iron Age.

Jäämme odottamaan, tehdäänkö noista "N3"-näytteistä tarkempaa haploryhmäselvitystä. - Liikaa toivottu? Vai onko jo tehty?


05 Syys 2018 21:37
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Sutki savolainen
Sutki savolainen

Liittynyt: 17 Tammi 2014 18:19
Viestit: 535
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Phenotypic inference based on ancient DNA of Iron Age individuals from Luistari in Southern Finland
A. D'Aurelio1,2, K. Majander2,3,4, H. Etu-Sihvola5, L. Arppe5, T. C. Lamnidis3, M. J. Oinonen5, J. Krause3,4, P. Onkamo2,6
E. Salmela2,3
1University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Biology, Rome, Italy
2University of Helsinki, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Helsinki, Finland
3Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Department of Archaeogenetics, Jena, Germany
4University of Tübingen, Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo- and Palaeogenetics, Tübingen, Germany
5University of Helsinki, Laboratory of Chronology, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Helsinki, Finland
6University of Turku, Department of Biology, Turku, Finland
Lainaa:
Introduction: Among the potential uses of ancient DNA (aDNA) data is the prediction of ancient individuals' phenotypes. Such knowledge can complement the insights gained from archaeological, osteological and stable isotope analyses, thus illuminating for example the morphology, health and disease of past populations and individuals.
Objectives: The aims of our study are threefold: first, expanding the set of phenotypes typically inferred from aDNA data; secondly, estimating the effect of various factors - such as sequencing coverage and the genetic architecture of the phenotypes - on the confidence of the phenotype prediction; and third, applying these insights in the phenotype inference of ancient individuals from Finland.
Methods: We studied six individuals (5 males, 1 female) from the archaeological site of Luistari, Eura in Southern Finland. Based on radiocarbon dating, these individuals originate from the 8th to 13th centuries AD. After DNA extraction, indexed libraries were prepared, enriched for a genome-wide set of 1.2 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using insolution capture, and sequenced on an Illumina HighSeq 4000 instrument. A set of 118 SNPs were chosen from this dataset, including loci for frequently inferred phenotypes such as hair or eye color and lactose tolerance as well as loci contributing to other potentially interesting phenotypes. The genotypes of these SNPs were obtained by samtools command mpileup, and the phenotype inference was done by manual inspection of the genotypes of each individual. Genotype probabilities were calculated based on the read depth of the observed variant(s) and the variant frequencies from the modern Finnish population.
Results: The number of successfully genotyped SNPs was 10-43 per individual. Despite the low sequencing coverage (average read depth 1.7 for the genotyped SNPs), 50% of these genotypes could be inferred with reasonably high certainty (> 85%). The corresponding phenotypes range from physical appearance (hair and eye color) to diseases and metabolic features.
Conclusion: Phenotype estimation based on ancient DNA can produce information that is potentially highly relevant both individually and in the context of population history. However, the availability of such insights is limited by a combination of data quality (low sequencing coverage) and the true complexity of phenotypes.


06 Syys 2018 10:16
Profiili
Lipevä lappilainen
Lipevä lappilainen

Liittynyt: 07 Tammi 2015 01:30
Viestit: 330
Paikkakunta: Helsinki
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Faguksen yllä lainaaman otteen jälkimmäinen lihavointi tarkoittaa siis (ainakin Suomesta löydettyjen näytteiden osalta) sitä, että muinaisnäytteistä luettavissaa olevien snippien määrät eivät välttämättä riitä kovin tarkkoihin haploryhmämäärityksiin.
(Voi olla tuurista kiinni, sattuuko joukkoon sellaisia snippejä, jotka tarkentavat tulosta mahdollisen onnistuneen päähaploryhmän määrityksen lisäksi sellaisissakin tapauksissa, joissa Y-DNA:ta on yleensä onnistuttu näytteestä lainkaan löytämään ja lukemaaan.)


06 Syys 2018 19:08
Profiili
Lipevä lappilainen
Lipevä lappilainen

Liittynyt: 30 Elo 2015 17:37
Viestit: 312
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Vai pitääkö tuo lainaus ymmärtää niin, että nuo määrät koskevat vain valittujen 118 snippien osuutta, eli enemmänkin olisi voinut saada mutta tutkimus keskittyi noihin 118 kiinnostaviksi valittuihin. Teksti on siis hyvin tulkinnan varainen. Tapahtuman jälkeen olemme varmasti hieman viisaampia. Toivottavasti mahdollisimman monesta tutkimuksesta julkaistaan myös raakadataa ja pääsemme vertailemaan niitä esim. GEDmatchin kautta tai omilla koneillamme.

_________________
Y: N-Z1941+/CTS9175+ -> N-Y21575+ -> N-Y52469+ (N-Z1940-, N-Y31893-)
Y: C-M8+, E-M75+, E-M78+, G-GG362+, G-M324+, I-BY3778+, I-Y11887+, J-Z1853+, J-M102+, K-M2335+, O-PK4+, R1b+, R-S47+, R2+, R-YP4141+
mt: H1 (H1a7)


06 Syys 2018 22:59
Profiili
Lipevä lappilainen
Lipevä lappilainen

Liittynyt: 07 Tammi 2015 01:30
Viestit: 330
Paikkakunta: Helsinki
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Iiro R kirjoitti:
Vai pitääkö tuo lainaus ymmärtää niin, että nuo määrät koskevat vain valittujen 118 snippien osuutta, eli enemmänkin olisi voinut saada mutta tutkimus keskittyi noihin 118 kiinnostaviksi valittuihin. Teksti on siis hyvin tulkinnan varainen. Tapahtuman jälkeen olemme varmasti hieman viisaampia. Toivottavasti mahdollisimman monesta tutkimuksesta julkaistaan myös raakadataa ja pääsemme vertailemaan niitä esim. GEDmatchin kautta tai omilla koneillamme.

Saattaakin olla juuri niin, kuten kirjoitit. Ehdottomasti samaa mieltä myös toiveittesi osassa.


06 Syys 2018 23:41
Profiili
Hiljainen hämäläinen
Hiljainen hämäläinen

Liittynyt: 26 Maalis 2015 13:34
Viestit: 31
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Pystyykö näitä esityksiä seuraamaan mitenkään? Tuolla ohjelmassa on kaikkea mielenkiintoista.


19 Syys 2018 10:37
Profiili
SuuBaltti
SuuBaltti

Liittynyt: 12 Elo 2013 12:41
Viestit: 4015
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Muinaissuomalaisten dna-esitelmä pidettiin eikä siitä saanut twiitata. Tiitisen lista löytynyt haudasta?


19 Syys 2018 17:23
Profiili
Lipevä lappilainen
Lipevä lappilainen

Liittynyt: 29 Elo 2015 19:08
Viestit: 397
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Rekonpoika kirjoitti:
Muinaissuomalaisten dna-esitelmä pidettiin eikä siitä saanut twiitata. Tiitisen lista löytynyt haudasta?

Eikö mitään tietoja "tihku" läpi?


19 Syys 2018 19:55
Profiili
SuuBaltti
SuuBaltti

Liittynyt: 12 Elo 2013 12:41
Viestit: 4015
Viesti Re: 8th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology
Anskuq kirjoitti:
Rekonpoika kirjoitti:
Muinaissuomalaisten dna-esitelmä pidettiin eikä siitä saanut twiitata. Tiitisen lista löytynyt haudasta?

Eikö mitään tietoja "tihku" läpi?


Ei muuta kuin mitä tiivistelmässä oli, vanhimmat näytteet olivat saamelaisen kaltaisia ja sitten alkoi ilmestyä itämeren rannan naapureiden (ruotsalaisten ja virolaisten?) kaltaisia sekaan.


19 Syys 2018 20:11
Profiili
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